Can Childhood Trauma Shorten Your Life?

In an article posted on December 28, 2013, Charlotte Silver connected the findings of the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term cardiovascular study, to the findings of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, a long-term study that relates chronic, continuous hyperarousal due to trauma to compromised immune system functioning and multiple adverse health outcomes, which together yield the disturbing affirmative answer to the question Silver posed. Click here to read Silver’s article.

Guarantee All Military Personnel and Veterans Have Informed Choice of Evidence-Based PTSD Treatments

EMDR International Association has started a petition to assure that our military personnel and veterans have an informed choice of evidence-based treatments for post-traumatic stress.  Please go to the link below and sign this petition.  Then help promote this important cause by sending the link to all of your contacts, sharing it on Facebook and Twitter, and/or adding a link on your website.  The White House will take action if we get 100,000 people to sign this by February 6th. You will have to Sign In or Create An Account which is simple to do. Join us and help our military and veterans get the treatment they deserve. Click here to go to the petition.

EMDR Therapy Basic Training Weekend Two in Honolulu in March 2014

Darlene Wade, LCSW, will host EMDR Therapy Basic Training in Honolulu.

We just completed a very successful Weekend One and are now engaged in the required consultation prior to Weekend Two.

Weekend Two will be held on March 14-16, 2014.

The location for Weekend Two will be The Pagoda, 1525 Rycroft Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96815, 808-948-8370.

Darlene Wade, LCSW, can be contacted at 808-521-3637 (521-EMDR).

The EMDR Institute Trainer will be Gerald Puk, Ph.D.

The EMDR Institute Weekend Two Training Overview can be found here.

Registration information can be found here.

WHO Guidelines for the Management of Conditions Specifically Related to Stress

© World Health Organization 2013

Posttraumatic stress disorder (recommendations 14–17)

14. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): psychological interventions – adults
Scoping question 14: For adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), do psychological interventions, when compared to treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, result in reduction of symptoms, improved functioning/quality of life, presence of disorder or adverse effects?

Recommendation 14
Individual or group cognitive -behavioural therapy (CBT) with a trauma focus, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) or stress management should be considered for adults with PTSD.
Strength of recommendation: standard
Quality of evidence: moderate for individual CBT, EMDR; low for group CBT, stress management

15. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): psychological interventions – children and adolescents
Scoping question 15: For children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), do psychological interventions, when compared to treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, result in a reduction of symptoms, improved functioning/quality of life, presence of disorder or adverse effects?

Recommendation 15
Individual or group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with a trauma focus or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) should be considered for children and adolescents with PTSD.
Strength of recommendation: standard
Quality of evidence: moderate for individual CBT, low for EMDR, very low for group CBT

16. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): pharmacological interventions – adults
Scoping question 16: For adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), do tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) or selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), when compared to treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, result in reduction of symptoms, improved functioning/quality of life, presence of disorder or adverse effects?

Recommendation 16
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) should not be offered as the first line of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in adults.
SSRIs and TCAs should be considered if:
(a) stress management, CBT with a trauma focus and EMDR have failed or are not available;
or
(b) if there is co-morbid moderate–severe depression.
Strength of recommendation: standard
Quality of evidence: low

17. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): pharmacological interventions – children and adolescents
Scoping question 17: For children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), do antidepressants, when compared to treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, result in reduction of symptoms, improved functioning/quality of life, presence of disorder or adverse effects?

Recommendation 17
Antidepressants should not be used to manage PTSD in children and adolescents.
Strength of recommendation: strong
Quality of evidence: very low

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing International Association Response to the Institute of Medicine Report on “Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Initial Assessment”

October 7, 2012

In response to the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) July 2012, publication, Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Initial Assessment, the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing International Association (EMDRIA) applauds the IOM for its leadership role in calling for the use of evidence-based methods for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for advocating stepped-up research on therapies for war stress injuries, with an appropriate recognition of the urgency required.

We do, however, see errors and omissions in the portrayal of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in the IOM reports; we believe that the misrepresentation of EMDR in the 2008 document unfortunately has been perpetuated in the 2012 Initial Assessment. We are concerned that these misunderstandings will be incorporated as Phase 2 of this study proceeds; thus we are providing you with information with the hope that these inaccuracies can be addressed and corrected. This would positively impact further research on the treatment of PTSD. In the following, we have identified several specific statements in the IOM report that misquote or misrepresent the original EMDR research papers. The inaccuracy of the quotes are serious enough to bias the conclusions of the IOM report and call into question the validity of the document.

In addition, we want to highlight the fact that the original IOM report on PTSD called for randomized clinical trials (RCT) to further evaluate EMDR (IOM, 2008), but this recommendation has not been implemented. It is our hope that our response will encourage the IOM to address this lack of follow through and advocate for randomized clinical trials to test the efficacy of all the evidence-based therapies.

EMDRIA’s complete response can be found here.

For PTSD treatment, EMDR could mean less pain, faster gain

BEHAVIORAL HEALTHCARE

September 21, 2012
By Shannon Brys, Associate Editor

EMDR, which stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, is a treatment approach that, according to the EMDR Institute’s website, “has been empirically validated in over 24 randomized studies of trauma victims.” In many cases, EMDR is effective in treating PTSD and related problems that arise from experiences and resulting memories so traumatic, life-threatening, or horrifying that they “get stuck,” defying the brain’s normal memory-processing functions and wreaking emotional havoc in the lives of PTSD victims.

“Every experience we’re having is changing the brain in some way. The past remains for the person,” explains Francine Shapiro, PhD, the psychologist who developed EMDR and today serves as executive director of the EMDR Institute (Watsonville, CA). While remembering the past is good when it comes to positive memories—happy events, education and work experiences, life milestones—it can be a negative for traumatic memories.  Sometimes, the memory of traumatic events overwhelms the brain’s routine process of memory consolidation and storage causing the memory—and all of its frightening, horrible, and sensitive emotional triggers—to get “stuck” in the brain.

Shapiro says that people who suffer PTSD or related problems typically struggle to “get past” one of three different types of “stuck” memories. She summarizes the dominant themes of these memories as:

·        “I’m not good enough.”
·        “I’m not safe.”
·        “I’m not in control.”

One common example includes situations like the ongoing recession, when people lose jobs and may experience all of these feelings.  Another all-too-common example involves members of the military who face the constant threat of near-instant death or serious injury.

When a client has a stuck memory, PTSD is often the result. That’s where EMDR comes in.  The treatment helps to process bad or traumatic memories in a more normal way.

The full article may be found here.

Francine Shapiro References on E.M.D.R.

Readers of the NEW YORK TIMES Consults blog posed questions about eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, or E.M.D.R., a psychological therapy pioneered by Francine Shapiro that uses eye movements and other procedures to process traumatic memories.

Those questions and Dr. Shapiro’s responses are included in other posts on this blog.

References cited in Dr. Shapiro’s post, “The Evidence on E.M.D.R.,” are included below, along with additional eye movement studies.

References cited in Dr. Shapiro’s posts, “The Evidence on E.M.D.R.” and “Expert Answers on E.M.D.R.”

American Psychiatric Association (2004). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce the vividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15, 325-345.

Boudewyns, P. A., Stwertka, S. A., Hyer, L. A., Albrecht, J. W., & Sperr, E. V. (1993). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A pilot study. Behavior Therapy, 16, 30–33

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 3-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9479673

Chemtob, C. M., Tolin, D. F., van der Kolk, B. A., & Pitman, R. K. (2000). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (pp. 139–155, 333–335). New York: Guilford Press.

Davidson, P.R., & Parker, K.C.H. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305-316.

Department of Veterans Affairs & Department of Defense (2010). VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Post-Traumatic Stress. Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs and Health Affairs, Department of Defense.

Edmond, T., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. (1999). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23, 103-116.

Edmond, T., Sloan, L., & McCarty, D. (2004). Sexual abuse survivors’ perceptions of the effectiveness of EMDR and eclectic therapy: A mixed-methods study. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 259-272.

Elofsson, U.O.E., von Scheele, B., Theorell, T., & Sondergaard, H.P. (2008). Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 622-634.

Foa, E.B., Keane, T.M., Friedman, M.J., & Cohen, J.A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies New York: Guilford Press.

Gosselin, P., & Matthews, W. J. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of test anxiety: A study of the effects of expectancy and eye movement. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 331–337.

Institute of Medicine (2007). Treatment of PTSD: An assessment of the evidence. NY: National Academies Press.

Ironson, G.I., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 113-128.

Jensen, J. A. (1994). An investigation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy, 25, 311–326.

Marcus, S., Marquis, P. & Sakai, C. (1997). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy, 34, 307-315. Follow-up: Marcus, S., Marquis, P. & Sakai, C. (2004). Three- and 6-month follow-up of EMDR treatment of PTSD in an HMO setting. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 195-208.

Marks, I. M., Lovell, K., Noshirvani, H., Livanou, M., & Thrasher, S. (1998). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 317–325.

Rothbaum, B. O. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B.O., Astin, M.C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 607-616.

Sack, M., Lempa, W. Steinmetz, A., Lamprecht, F. & Hofmann, A. (2008). Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) – results of a preliminary investigation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1264-1271.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Schubert, S.J., Lee, C.W. & Drummond, P.D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 1-11.

Stickgold, R. (2002). EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 61-75.

Stickgold, R. (2008). Sleep-dependent memory processing and EMDR action. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 289-299.

Taylor, S. et al. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 330-338.

van den Hout, M., et al. (2011). EMDR: Eye movements superior to beeps in taxing working memory and reducing vividness of recollections. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 92-98.

Van der Kolk, B., Spinazzola, J. Blaustein, M., Hopper, J. Hopper, E., Korn, D., & Simpson, W. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of EMDR, fluoxetine and pill placebo in the treatment of PTSD: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 37-46.

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937.

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

Recent Eye Movement Randomized Trials

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce the vividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15, 325-345.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., MacCulloch, S., Freeman, T. C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye-movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 289-302.

Christman, S. D., Garvey, K. J., Propper, R. E., & Phaneuf, K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology. 17, 221-229.

Christman, S. D., Propper, R. E., & Brown, T. J. (2006). Increased interhemispheric interaction is associated with earlier offset of childhood amnesia. Neuropsychology, 20, 336.

Engelhard, I.M., van den Hout, M.A., Janssen, W.C., & van der Beek, J. (2010). Eye movements reduce vividness and emotionality of ‘‘flashforwards.’’ Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 442–447.

Engelhard, I.M., et al. (2011). Reducing vividness and emotional intensity of recurrent “flashforwards” by taxing working memory: An analogue study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25, 599–603.

Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working-memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy 46, 913– 931.

Kavanagh, D. J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2001). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267-280.

Kuiken, D., Bears, M., Miall, D., & Smith, L. (2001-2002). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing facilitates attentional orienting. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 21, (1), 3-20.

Kuiken, D., Chudleigh, M. & Racher, D. (2010). Bilateral eye movements, attentional flexibility and metaphor comprehension: The substrate of REM dreaming? Dreaming, 20, 227–247.

Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the processing of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 801-808.

Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W.T. & Hayman, C.A. G. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 247-261.

Parker, A., Buckley, S. & Dagnall, N. (2009). Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements. Brain and Cognition, 69, 89-97.

Parker, A. & Dagnall, N. (2007). Effects of bilateral eye movements on gist based false recognition in the DRM paradigm. Brain and Cognition, 63, 221-225.

Parker, A., Relph, S. & Dagnall, N. (2008). Effects of bilateral eye movement on retrieval of item, associative and contextual information. Neuropsychology, 22, 136-145.

Samara, Z., Bernet M., Elzinga, B.M., Heleen A. Slagter, H.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2011). Do horizontal saccadic eye movements increase interhemispheric coherence? Investigation of a hypothesized neural mechanism underlying EMDR. Frontiers in Psychiatry doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00004

Schubert, S.J., Lee, C.W. & Drummond, P.D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 1-11.

Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121-130.

van den Hout, M., et al. (2011). EMDR: Eye movements superior to beeps in taxing working memory and reducing vividness of recollections. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 92-98.

Physiological and Trauma Response Evaluations of Eye Movements (recent/partial)

Elofsson, U.O.E., von Scheele, B., Theorell, T., & Sondergaard, H.P. (2008). Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 622-634.

Hornsveld, H. K., Landwehr, F., Stein, W., Stomp, M., Smeets, S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Emotionality of loss-related memories is reduced after recall plus eye movements but not after recall plus music or recall only. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4, 106-112.

Lilley, S.A., Andrade, J., Graham Turpin, G.,Sabin-Farrell, R. & Emily A. Holmes, E.A. (2009). Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 309–321.

Sack, M., Hofmann, A., Wizelman, L., & Lempa, W. (2008). Psychophysiological changes during EMDR and treatment outcome. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 239-246.

Sack, M., Lempa, W. Steinmetz, A., Lamprecht, F. & Hofmann, A. (2008). Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) – results of a preliminary investigation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1264-1271.

E.M.D.R. Therapy Randomized Clinical Outcome Research (civilian/partial list)

Arabia, E., Manca, M.L. & Solomon, R.M. (2011). EMDR for survivors of life-threatening cardiac events: Results of a pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5, 2-13.

Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J.G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related PTSD: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 99-112.

de Roos, C. et al. (2011). A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster exposed children. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2: 5694 – DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694

Edmond, T., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. (1999). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23, 103-116.

Follow-up: Edmond, T., & Rubin, A. (2004). Assessing the long-term effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-month follow up study with adult female survivors of CSA. Journal of Childhood Sexual Abuse, 13, 69–86.

Hogberg, G. et al., (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: A randomized controlled study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 54-61. Follow-up: Högberg, G. et al. (2008). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Outcome is stable in 35-month follow-up. Psychiatry Research. 159, 101-108.

Ironson, G.I., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 113-128.

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim S., & Zand, S.O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368.

Kemp M., Drummond P., & McDermott B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 5-25.

Lee, C., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J. & Greenwald, R. (2002). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: A comparison of stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1071-1089.

Marcus, S., Marquis, P. & Sakai, C. (1997). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy, 34, 307-315. Follow-up: Marcus, S., Marquis, P. & Sakai, C. (2004). Three- and 6-month follow-up of EMDR treatment of PTSD in an HMO setting. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 195-208.

Nijdam et al. (in press). Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry.

Power, K.G., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., et al. (2002). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring, versus waiting list in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 299-318. Reevaluation of findings; Karatzias, A., Power, K. McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D. & Swanson, V. (2006). Predicting treatment outcome on three measures for post-traumatic stress disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neuroscience, 20, 1-7.

Rothbaum, B. O. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B.O., Astin, M.C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 607-616.

Scheck, M., Schaeffer, J.A., & Gillette, C. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.

Taylor, S. et al. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 330-338.

Van der Kolk, B., Spinazzola, J. Blaustein, M., Hopper, J. Hopper, E., Korn, D., & Simpson, W. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of EMDR, fluoxetine and pill placebo in the treatment of PTSD: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 37-46.

Vaughan, K., Armstrong, M.F., Gold, R., O’Connor, N., Jenneke, W., & Tarrier, N. (1994). A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283-291.

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937. Follow-up: Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

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